From the Ground Up by Phi Hardwick

Most strategic planning retreats begin with an opening exercise designed to energize the group and get participants to know each other better. The big issues surface later on during the retreat. However, at one recent retreat the opening exercise exposed a major issue facing the organization. The issue: an aging workforce. The exercise: autograph party.

Autograph party, also known as autograph bingo, is an excellent way to begin a team building meeting or a strategic planning retreat. Best used with large groups it asks participants to mingle and discover facts about each other.
In the autograph bingo version participants are given a sheet of paper containing five squares across and five squares down similar to a bingo card. Each square contains a different fact or trait. For example:

– has traveled by train;

– grew up on a farm;

– has two or more siblings;

– voted in the last election;

– plays a musical instrument.

Participants then stand up and find another person who fits the trait or characteristic. When they do so they have that person place their autograph in the square. The fun begins when it becomes increasingly difficult to find someone who fits the desired trait. The facilitator can make it easy or difficult depending on the group. For example, if the group was composed of only professional people it might be difficult to find someone without a college education. When someone has five squares across, down or diagonal as in bingo then that person shouts, “Bingo,” and the game is over.

In the autograph party version participants are given a list of characteristics and instructed to find others in the room who possess that particular characteristic. Such was the case in the above-referenced retreat, which included approximately 25 participants in the same division of a larger organization.

After everyone in the group had done their best to find a match, the facilitator reconvened everyone, and asked everyone who possessed that certain characteristic to stand as read the characteristic. Most stood when asked who had voted in the last election. Only a few stood when the characteristic was “does not like sushi.” Almost everyone stood when the characteristic was “has had a colonoscopy.” Only three people stood when “has a tattoo” was read. At that point there was a lively chatter about where on the bodies the tattoos were located. Then it became obvious that the tattooed participants were under 30 years of age.

At that point one of the wise elders in the group remarked, “So we have too many colonoscopies, and not enough tattoos.”
All realized that the comment was another way of saying that this organization had an aging workforce and a wave of retirements coming soon. After all, people don’t begin colonoscopies until they are over age 50. They also realized that tattoos are mostly associated with younger persons.

Thus, autograph party broke the ice for the group and allowed the participants to begin focusing on some real issues facing the organization. In this case, the issues were the aging workforce and the differences in how baby boomers and millennials approached their jobs. That in turn led to serious discussion about succession planning and whether the current policies and procedures needed to be changed to accommodate the current and future workforce.

These issues and how an organization should handle social media seem to be the hot topics facing almost every organization these days. Management everywhere is attempting to understand how to deal with these issues.

Baby boomers, those 76 million people born between 1946 and 1964, are entering retirement age. As they become so-called older workers a range of issues face employers, not the least of which is a declining labor force participation rate. In other words, by 2020 this country is expected to have a shortage of workers. Many employers are making plans to deal with this phenomenon. Many are not, and are just hoping for the best. Thus, labor force participation rate is one issue.

A current issue is how to deal with a mix of employees who have different values. Many articles have been written about millennials, those born between generally between the early 1980’s and the late 1990’s. One 2012 study found Millennials to be “more civically and politically disengaged, more focused on materialistic values, and less concerned about helping the larger community than were GenX (born 1962-1981) and Baby Boomers (born 1946 to about 1961) at the same ages,” according to USA Today. The study was based on an analysis of two large databases of 9 million high school seniors or entering college students.

An issue facing state government in Mississippi is its aging workforce. Over 35 percent of state government workers are now eligible for retirement. That’s not only a workforce issue, but an economic issue as well.

So how should an organization even begin to deal with these issues? Perhaps the answer lies with colonoscopies and tattoos.




The strengthening U.S. dollar hit a 14-year high recently. Depending on your perspective that can be a good thing or a bad thing. For U.S. manufacturers, not so good. For Americans traveling abroad, it could not get much better.

If you are a U.S. manufacturer who exports a significant amount of products, a strong dollar can be a bad thing by making your exports more expensive and your foreign earnings less valuable. For example, a manufacturer who pays wages and other costs in U.S. dollars, but receives payments in Canadian dollars will be severely threatened. That’s because as I write this, the exchange rate in Canada is 1.28 Canadian Dollar for 1.00 U.S. On the other hand, if you are considering traveling outside the United States now is a great time.

My wife and I discovered the benefits of a strong dollar on a recent trip to Canada. It was like getting a 25 percent discount on every purchase. We paid for just about everything with a credit card. Even $5 worth of items at a convenience store. Our trip included the coast of Maine, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. Herein is a brief summary of our trip if you are considering a similar venture in 2017. Consider this as Part one of two.

Although most of our time was spent in Canada we first spent the first few days exploring the Maine Coast. Highlights included a two-hour schooner sail on the Casco Bay to and from the Old Port in Portland, a visit to Acadia National Park and shopping and dining in Bar Harbor. The peak of Cadillac Mountain in Acadia National Park is the spot where the first ray of sunshine touches the United States every day. The view from there is absolutely gorgeous. Some tourists even go there at daybreak.

Be sure to include Bar Harbor in your itinerary. We found this village at the edge of the sea not overrun by tourists even though there was a cruise ship in the harbor. The shopping, dining and strolling is nice, but the best part for us was simply sitting on a dock and watching the harbor activity as the tide ebbed. This town of just over 5,000 residents is surrounded by Acadia National Park.

A highlight of any trip is meeting and talking with locals about what they do and their local customs. In one case, I spent almost an hour with a retired lobsterman learning about the intricacies of lobstering, marking and protecting traps and how prices affect the lives of those in the industry. We stood on a dock at sundown, and I listened while he talked as he fished with a rod and reel. I also heard his views on national and local politics.

After Maine, we headed in our rental car to St. John, New Brunswick, Canada, pausing at the border to show citizenship documents and answer the usual questions. It’s a good idea to carry your U.S. passport with you, especially upon returning to the United States, otherwise other forms of proof of citizenship will be asked for. We chose the St. John route because we wanted to ferry to Nova Scotia across the Bay of Fundy, where it is not uncommon to see whales that make their summer home there. The tides on the Nova Scotia side of the bay are some of the highest in the world at over 35 feet. Twice a day the tide comes in and reverses the flow of rivers. It is a natural wonder of the world.

The route from Digby, our ferry’s disembarkation point and “the scallop capital of the world,” to Halifax is an enjoyable ride through the Nova Scotia countryside. We stopped for lunch in Wolfville, known for its local vineyards, and checked in at the local chamber of commerce for suggestions. And we certainly were accorded an excellent one. Luckett Vineyards is located on a hillside overlooking the town and the Minas Basin. Lunch is served on an open-air patio crush pad. In the middle of the vineyard is a London-style telephone booth, signifying owner Pete Luckett’s connection to Nottingham, England.

Upon arrival in Halifax we met the representative of the owner of the condominium that we reserved through Airbnb. Then it was off to the waterfront for dinner. The waterfront is home to numerous restaurants, beautiful sunsets and all types of water vessels going to and fro. Our first dining experience there was at Salty’s Restaurant. There’s much more to Halifax. I would even recommend the Halifax Central Library, with its contemporary design, art exhibits, coffee shop and more.

I like the history of places we visit, and Halifax is full of it. Hydrostone is a trendy neighborhood in north Halifax, so named after the Halifax Explosion, which occurred on December 6, 1917 when two ships collided in the harbor nearby. One was carrying 2,700 tons of munitions. The subsequent explosion killed about 2,000 men, women, and children that day, and some 9,000 were injured. It was the largest explosion prior to the detonation of the atomic bomb, and it flattened the neighborhood. Today the neighborhood is the place to be in Halifax. Dinner at Salvatore’s Pizzaiolo Trattoria sidewalk café was a special treat.

The fishing village of Peggy’s Cove is a 45-minute drive from downtown Halifax. If waves crashing on rocks appeals to you, as it did us, then this is a fascinating spot. Again, watching the tide come in and out is captivating.

After a few days in Nova Scotia, we were off to Prince Edward Island.


Bay Ferries Ltd –

Luckett’s Vineyard –

Salty’s Restaurant –

Peggy’s Cove –

Hydrostone –

Salvatore’s Pizzaiolo Trattoria –



Holding Parents Accountable

Hardly a week goes by in the Magnolia State that we don ‘t hear about how to solve Mississippi ‘s perennial education problem. Almost all of the education reform proposals deal with students, teachers and/or schools. Perhaps it ‘s time we looked seriously at how to have parents be more responsible and accountable.
And dare I say it, we need to find ways to help economically disadvantaged – and disengaged – parents help their children with school. It will not be easy. The family issues are complex. But if we don ‘t focus on issues in the students ‘ homes we will continue to get unprepared students who get further behind every year because their parents are ill-equipped to handle their homework assignments and out-of-school activities.

The reason for this suggestion is that the data clearly show that there is a strong, if not direct, correlation between parents ‘ income and success in school. But it ‘s more than that. Income is correlated with education. The parents ‘ education. An educated parent usually results in an educated child. Indeed, consider this statement from an August 18, 2013 Tampa Bay Times article entitled “Parents have biggest impact on students ‘success’:

“Recent reports from the National Coalition for Parent Involvement in Education, the National Center for Family and Community Connections with Schools, and the Center for Law and Education all echo a study by the national Parent Teacher Association that concluded, “The most accurate predictors of achievement in school are not family income or social status, but the extent to which the family creates a home environment that encourages learning … “

Creating a home environment that encourages learning takes work as my wife and I learned recently from taking care of our grandchildren for several days. They live in upscale Alpharetta, Georgia, which has an excellet school system. Every day upon returning from school our grandson ‘s backpack contained a folder from his teacher. Inside was a pocket on either side, one for items to be returned to school and one for things to keep at home.

Here ‘s a sample of the tasks were to be completed one day: Draw and label 10 living things and 10 non-living things, memorize the 10 sight words contained in the sight word sheet, cut and paste various shapes (triangle, square, rectangle, etc.) onto a robot figure, and locate several shapes (cube, cylinder, etc.) found in the house. There were also tasks to be completed each day of the week, such as counting to 50, reciting each day of the week, etc. And of course the parent and student were to read at least 20 minutes each day. These activities took over an hour of interaction each day between parent and child. Oh, did I mention that our grandchild is in kindergarten?

On the day we left to return to Mississippi the Atlanta Journal-Constitution contained an article titled, “Elementary school scores drop in latest report card.” State officials attribute the drop to, “… the performance of at-risk groups, such as children from low-income neighborhoods. “ Results of the 2016-16 College and Career Ready Performance Index released on Dec. 8, 2016 show elementary school in Georgia on average scoring 71.7 points (on the 110 scale), a 4.3 point drop from the previous year. The Georgia Governor ‘s Office of Student Achievement applied its own readily understood grading scale, i.e. A-F. Thus, Georgia ‘s elementary schools scored a C, as did the middle schools. The Georgia Department of Education attributed the drop to the performance of “economically disadvantaged “ students.

Finding ways to help disadvantaged parents or guardians is not going to be an easy task. Many economically disadvantaged parents have educational shortages themselves. Many could not provide the homework help mentioned above. Nearly 7 percent of adults in the state have less than a ninth-grade education, which is two percentage points above the national average. As of 2003, the most recent National Assessment of Adult Literacy, at least 15 percent of adults in Mississippi were found to be illiterate, with rates soaring as high as 30 percent in some of the most impoverished and rural counties.

And then there is the issue of race and education. I highly recommend a Washington Post article by Tony Carnevale, director of the Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce, titled “White flight is creating a separate and unequal system of higher education.” He points out that “… whites are fleeing the underfunded and overcrowded two-year and four-year open-access colleges for the nation’s top 500 universities.” He also states that “our racially stratified postsecondary education system serves as a passive agent that mimics and magnifies the race-based inequities it inherits from the K-12 education system and projects them into the labor market.” He says that we must also acknowledge the inherent limits of affirmative action as we know it. The racial stratification of higher education is a systemic problem.

Reflecting on this issue reminds me of how Albert Einstein defined insanity as doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results.

Perhaps we should remember the maxim: We are perfectly structured for the results were are getting.


The strangest eminent domain case ever

There is an intriguing eminent domain case going on in south Mississippi. It involves a popular, well-known local eatery, the Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT), the local county government and a 100-foot strip of land alongside a highway. The real estate issue is property value, but that is only the beginning.

Let’s begin with a brief, but incomplete factual timeline because there are so many issues with this case.

2001 – The Shed Barbecue and Blues Joint opens on Highway 57 in Jackson County. It becomes popular and well-known outside the county. It even had a season on the Food Network channel.

February 2012 – The Shed destroyed by fire.

2012 – Owners rebuild, but without permits in a special flood-hazard area, and for having unpermitted signs out front, according to county officials.

August 2012 – MDOT files court case to take 100-feet of The Shed’s property to widen Highway 57.

2012 – 2014 – Owners given permission by county to operate as a temporary structure.

July 2014 – County notifies The Shed it is in violation of building code.

April 26, 2016 – Jackson County cites The Shed with building code violations

October 2016 – MDOT case is set to go to trial over taking of strip of land beside roadway. Case had been continued five times. MDOT has said the land is worth less than $200,000. The business owners want more than $1 million for the .43 acre.

November 2016 – A jury sets the value of .4 acres at The Shed at $408,334 that the Mississippi Department of Transportation will have to pay owners. Owners deciding whether to appeal.

In short, there are two cases: An eminent domain case with MDOT and a building permit violation case with the county. One of the main issues in the eminent domain case was how much the business value contributed to the land value. And one argument there is whether a business that may be operating without the proper permits even has any value. Obviously, the jury thought so.

Now for a bit of real estate primer.

Highest and best use is defined as that use that is physically possible, legally permissible, financially feasible and most profitable. These four attributes are the ingredients for determining highest and best use. In this case it could be argued that because The Shed’s use was not legally permissible then the current use is not the highest and best use. It does not mean that it has no value.

Value, as it applies to anything, has for basic components, as represented by the acronym DUST, where D stands for demand, U is for utility, S is for scarcity and T is transferability. For something to have value it must have all four. Demand means that there is a market for the property or the item. There is someone willing to pay for it. Utility refers to that idea that it has some use. For example, a pencil can be used for writing, a refrigerator can store things at a cool temperature and a parcel of real estate can be developed or can be used for other purposes, such as agriculture or recreation. Scarcity means that there is a limited supply available. All real estate parcels are considered scarce because no two are exactly alike if for no other reason than they are physically located in different places. Transferability refers to the concept that title to the property can be conveyed to another party.

There are many different types of value. For example, there is sentimental value, assessed value and insurable value. When valuing real estate, the most common form of value used is market value, which is defined as “The most probable price, as of a specified date, in cash, or in terms equivalent to cash, or in other precisely revealed terms, for which the specified property rights should sell after reasonable exposure in a competitive market under all conditions requisite to a fair sale, with the buyer and seller each acting prudently, knowledgeably, and for self-interest, and assuming that neither is under duress.”

It will be interesting to see how these cases are resolved. As mentioned earlier, The Shed is a popular, well-known place. It is a bona-fide tourist attraction. It serves thousands of customers each weeks in a collection of – well – sheds. The owners are involved in the community, and the community is involved in The Shed. After Hurricane Katrina over 50 volunteers helped to rebuild the place. There was some wonderment in the county about whether there could be found twelve impartial jurors.

Now that the eminent case has been before a jury, we now await the county’s building code case. The question being asked: What’s the future of The Shed?




Why do some organizations thrive and really make a difference when others seem to be just hanging on? One thorough research project revealed that there are several things that make a significant difference in the success of associations. This research, which was conducted by the American Society of Association Executives, was presented in a book entitled 7 Measures of Success: What Remarkable Associations Do That Others Don’t. If you manage an association, serve in a leadership role in an association or are a member of an association this book is worth reading.

The 7 Measures Project, as it was called, began in 2002 and resulted in publication of the book in 2006. An updated version was published in 2012. It presents as checkup on the associations that were mentioned in the first edition. The research used the matched-pair methodology, which was also used by Jim Collins and colleagues and resulted in the classic business management book, Good to Great. Basically, what that means is that the researchers looked at organizations that were in the same era and faced the same challenges. The successful companies were then compared to those that were not so successful to find out why. The researchers looked at 104 associations that had been in business for a minimum of 20 years.

Listed below are the seven measures, or factors, that were discovered. along with some comments by this writer.

1. A Customer Service Culture – The remarkable associations built their organizations by serving members and providing value to their members. They actively sought ways to continuously improve services to their members.

Some organizations make the mistake of forgetting that they are membership organizations. For example, the leadership of one chamber of commerce in Mississippi decided that it wanted to effect change in an issue facing the public. It got involved in a campaign that resulted in a referendum that was defeated by the community by a wide margin. The members were never asked if they wanted to participate in the campaign. It took a while for the chamber to rebuild member trust.

  1. Alignment of Products and Services with Mission – The associations were driven by mission, not money. Everyone knew the mission of the organization and whom they served. The mission was central, regardless of the external environment.

Some organizations that are really good at what they good get lured into doing other things by funders who are in search of effective organizations. For example, an organization good at building houses may not be so good at job creation. But because of their success and opportunity to expand they refocused their mission, which led to a crisis when the funding dried up.

  1. Data-Driven Strategies – Surveys of members, analysis of the environment in which they operated and continuous analysis of information resulted in accumulation of data that was acted upon. The remarkable associations were good at gathering and sharing information. They knew what members wanted and were willing to pay for.
  2. Dialogue and Engagement – The staff and volunteers listened to each other and talked to each other. There were cross-functional teams, and no so-called silos. There was constant communication. By the way, the typical level of member non-involvement is 69.9 percent.
  3. CEO as a Broker of Ideas – The CEO facilitated “visionary thinking” throughout the organization and developed a strong staff and volunteer partnership. The CEO was not necessarily the idea generator, but was the person who connected ideas with people and action.

Organizations should beware of charismatic leaders who have followers. It should be the organization and its mission that is followed, not the leader.

  1. Organizational Adaptability – When remarkable organizations face a crisis they learn from it and change accordingly. Nevertheless, they know when not to change. The key is to know when to change. Sometimes that means abandoning a project or idea; sometimes it means refocusing.

This is why regular strategic planning is so important. Planning is about looking ahead, but it is also learning from the past, e.g. what worked and did not work.

  1. Alliance Building – These associations were very good at finding and forming alliances and partnerships that complemented their mission and purpose. They also were good at communicating clear expectations about the partnerships. They are not driven by money, nor were they afraid to dissolve the partnership if it was not effective.

Finally, just in case you are wondering, here are the nine organizations listed as “remarkable” in the book:


American College of Cardiology

American Dental Association

Associated General Contractors of America

Girl Scouts of the USA

National Associations of Counties

Ohio Society of CPAs

Radiological Society of North America

Society for Human Resource Management



Anatomy of a Failed Economic Development Project

(June 28, 2016)
This is the story of a failed economic development project. The names and locations have been changed to protect the guilty. It is a lesson for economic developers and community leaders seeking to recruit large projects to their areas.

A large retailer operating in a dozen states in the southeastern part of the United States was seeking to expand. Headquartered in a major metropolitan area, its sales were increasing and its market area was growing. Its analysts recommended opening a new distribution center to improved logistics and increase sales even more. They hired a site selector who recommended two sites in a certain area.

The company was family-owned, having been founded 30 years ago by a man and wife who began their business with a dress shop managed by her and a men’s clothing store managed by him. Their joint business expanded to household items and more. Their sons took over day-to-day management of the business with the goal of doubling in size in 10 years.

The area under consideration was located at the intersection of two large U.S. highways. It had a steady increase in population, and was projected to grow at even faster rate in the coming decade. Growth was occurring at a faster rate in the suburban area, which is located outside the city limits of the central city. Average income was higher than the state average and the unemployment rate was lower than the national average.

The central city had a well-established industrial park. There was only one vacant building, which was formerly used by a trucking company that went out of business. It met the needs of the company, with only slight modifications and could be ready in less than 90 days. A second option for the expanding company was to construct a new facility in the county. Although it would be slightly more efficient it would mean a construction period of at least nine months. The company decided that both options were equal. It sent its in-house real estate vice president to meet with local officials in the city and the county.

Recently, there had been increasing animosity between the chambers of commerce in the suburban areas and the one in the central city. A year ago, county leaders formed an economic development organization and hired its first economic developer, a 31-year-old male with previous experience as the assistant economic developer in a suburban county in the Atlanta area. His hiring was somewhat contentious from the beginning. A search committee put forth two candidates, one from the local area who was well-known and respected and one from outside the area. One faction of county leaders felt that a certain local candidate would be the best choice because the position required someone who knew the local “lay of the land.” Another group felt that the best choice would be someone from a growing suburban county from another state. Eventually, the board chose the economic developer from the other state.

On the appointed day, the real estate vice president met with the city economic developer in the morning and the county economic developer in the afternoon. As is now customary in the economic development world, there were discussions of incentives that would be offered to the company. Each economic development official was informed that two sites were under consideration and were asked why the company should choose their respective site. The central city economic developer pointed out the reasons that the city site met the needs of the company. The county economic developer did the same, but then chose to talk about the reasons that the city site was a bad choice. He pointed out that suburbia was where distribution companies were locating. He then handed the prospect a sheet that compared the city and county. The facts presented were about crime, schools, infrastructure, government officials and future growth. The county economic developer concluded his presentation by saying, in effect, “… choose that other site and it will get burglarized, your drivers will get mugged and it will be difficult to recruit employees who have children in school.”

The real estate vice president went back to headquarters and reported the details of his visit. It did not take long for the company management to choose the city site. The CEO of the company remarked if the county economic developer talked that way about his competition then he probably talks that way about other things. Today, the company is still in its distribution center in the city and the county economic developer was fired a long time ago.

The primary lesson in this story is that one should not disparage their competition, but should instead sell the benefits of their own assets. As this writer’s grandfather was fond of saying, “Never talk bad about someone else because when you do you’re really taking bad about yourself.”

A secondary lesson in this story is that sooner or later the city and county will be marketing itself as a region. Talking negatively about a neighbor will not be tolerated. When prospective clients see a divided region it raises the proverbial red flag. All one has to do is look at the most successful economic development projects in Mississippi to conclude that regions that work together get the best projects.

Friendly competition and pride in one’s community is a healthy thing. Attempting to sell a community by telling why a prospect should not move to a neighboring community is a disease that needs treatment.

The Benefits of Sharing a Meal

Collaboration among community leaders is one of the keys to success in moving an area forward. But what if leaders don’t seem to want to collaborate? What if they are more concerned with their own territory than the community as a whole? What can be done to get them together? One good place to begin is the dinner table.

One of the reasons that community leaders don’t work together is that they don’t respect each other. They may see each other as unequals or even adversaries. The reason they don’t respect each other is that they don’t understand each other. And one of the reasons that they don’t understand each other is that they don’t listen to each other. One of the best ways to begin to listen to each other is to have a meal together. And not the kind of meal that they usually attend together, i.e. the civic club luncheons, the public/private partnership meetings, the board meetings, etc. The meal should be one-on-one or better yet one-on-one in each other’s homes.

Dining in each other’s homes is not as common as it used to be. Nowadays, friends and business acquaintances are more likely to go out to dine at a restaurant. That was not always the case. This writer recalls the time some 20-plus years ago when he was summoned to jury duty at the federal courthouse. At the beginning of the jury selection process, the judge asked prospective jurors if any of them were personal friends of any of the attorneys. One person raised his hand, saying he knew one of the attorneys. The judge then began probing into how well the juror was acquainted with the attorney. He asked the usual questions, and then he asked, “Have you ever had dinner in his home or has he ever had dinner in your home?” The prospective juror replied in the negative, whereupon the judge said that the man did not know the attorney well enough to be excused from jury duty.

Sharing a meal with someone else, and not having an agenda other than to get to know each other better can be the beginning of a joint effort to improve the community. Once upon a time, there was a community in Mississippi where there were three main influencers. One was the mayor, one was the president of the county board of supervisors and one was the chief executive of the largest employer in the area. The only time they dealt with each other was in public meetings where many other people were usually present. The community was not growing and no new businesses of significance were opening. An outside consultant evaluated the situation, recognized the dysfunction and recommended that the three leaders have a monthly meal together. Before long, they began to understand each other, respect each other and work together. Today, that community is on the move.

History is filled with leaders having meals together to get to know each other better, to resolve their issues and to plan the future. Let us begin with some noteworthy World War II meals. In 1942, Winston Churchill met Stalin for the first time. The purpose of their meeting was to generally discuss the end of the war and who would get what. They had dinner at the Kremlin. At the website History Professor David Williams gives his impression of the dinner and the meeting as Churchill would have perceived it:
“There’s a man here who I can deal with. Okay, so we had a bad day yesterday, but today is a good day, we’ve had dinner, we’ve had a booze, we’ve talked about families and things, this is human stuff. And given how remote Stalin was before, that’s progress. Churchill always hangs onto this, he always feels that if he could get round the table with Stalin things could be sorted out.”

There were many more dinner meetings in which Churchill, Stalin and others, including President Franklin D. Roosevelt would attend. There was the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945.
In American history, there is probably no more famous meal than that which occurred in 1621 between the Pilgrims and the Wampanoag Indians. It is not known exactly what was consumed at this meal, but turkey was probably one of the dishes. Governor William Bradford wrote about the food situation of the autumn of 1621, saying that “there was great store of wild turkeys, of which they took many.” Although this meal was probably a harvest celebration, there is no doubt that the participants got to know each other better.

Leaders of all stripes use luncheons and dinners to meet with those who oppose them and those who support them to discuss issues. In February of this year, President Obama met with House Speaker Paul Ryan and Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell in a private lunch session to discuss ways they could work together. Not really sure how that has worked out.

Without a doubt, the most famous meal would be that known as The Last Supper, in which Jesus Christ foretold coming events and instructed his disciples on what to do when he was gone.

As this writer observes current political events in Mississippi it is hoped that leaders from different sides of the issues would simply take the time to have a meal together and get to know each other on a more personal basis. Who knows what might happen?